Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid and hemp derivative increasingly used in food. Illegal in food at the United States federal level, but legal in some states, the CBD-infused food product market has grown substantially, prompting government concerns regarding potential safety risks. CBD foods are a growing market driven by increasing demand from producers and consumers, governed by an inconsistent and evolving legal framework. This systematic review of research and regulations identified how legality relates to safety. The research also included an emphasis on dose, a key factor for determining safety in foods. Statutes and guidance documents were reviewed from a selection of jurisdictions with existing or proposed legalized CBD in food to determine what restrictions are employed relative to safety, including dose and related standards for food. A search of scientific literature was conducted to evaluate what is known about safe dose in food applications and determine what information is still needed to inform a standard or regulated limit. Findings were analyzed to determine risks and what research and regulations are needed to address them. Legal jurisdictions do little to safeguard consumers against potential risks associated with CBD in food as they focus primarily on warnings and prohibiting health claims. Warning and labeling requirements lack consistency. More concerning is the absence of standards for dose in food or for the composition of the CBD used. Further, there is limited and incomplete information to inform such standards.