Ensuring the chemical, physical, and microbial safety of food and ingredients underpins the international trade of food items and is integral to building consumer confidence. Achieving this requires effective systems to support the safety of food across the supply chain. Differing risk-assessment approaches are utilized globally for establishing food safety systems, and bench marking these approaches against international food safety standards can assist in the development of country-specific systems. This China–Australia collaborative review examined similarities and differences in the food safety risk-assessment systems of China, Australia/New Zealand, Canada, and the United States, with the view to identify areas that could support improvements to the Chinese system. Key differences include the level of cohesiveness among stakeholders and the level to which each country promotes the international harmonization of standards. The evidence highlights a need for greater capacity-building in risk assessment in China that may support greater stakeholders’ cohesion, improve hazard identification, and allow regulators to more readily keep abreast of changes to international standards. This review may help the Chinese food industry to replicate the same level of food safety risk assessment currently applied by other key countries, and reflects the determination, government prioritization, and active strengthening of China's National Centre for Food Safety Risk Assessment currently underway.