The purpose of this contribution is to explain the principles of law applicable to the control of biotechnology, which are used by public entities in the interpretation of legal norms in order to grant or deny authorization for the import, planting, modification, development, transportation, sale or distribution of genetically modified organisms. The decisions made by these bodies are based on reasoning postulated by legal logic to protect human rights or to defend international trade.
The term genetically modified organisms (GMO) is also referred to as living modified organism (LMO), or transgenic. The handling of these organisms is regulated by universal, regional and national international instruments.
According to Article 2 of the European Parliament Directive, a GMO is "an organism, other than a human being, the genetic material of which has been
modified in a way that does not occur naturally by mating or natural recombination".